Distinguishing Between the Common Cold and Allergies: Understanding the Variances

Distinguishing Between the Common Cold and Allergies: Understanding the Variances
11.04.2024

It’s a question that puzzles lots of folks when those familiar symptoms hit: Is all that coughing and sneezing from a cold or hay fever?

It’s sometimes a tough call, but how long your problems last is one of the big clues.

What Are Colds and Allergies?

They have different causes. You get a cold when a tiny living thing called a virus gets into your body. There are hundreds of different types that can get you sick.

Once a cold virus gets inside you, your immune system, the body’s defense against germs, launches a counter-attack. It’s this response that brings on the classic symptoms like a cough or stuffed up nose.

The viruses that cause colds are contagious. You can pick them up when someone who’s infected sneezes, coughs, or shakes hands with you. After a couple of weeks, at the most, your immune system fights off the illness and you should stop having symptoms.

It’s a different story with allergies. They’re caused by an overactive immune system. For some reason, your body mistakes harmless things, such as dust or pollen, for germs and mounts an attack on them.

When that happens, your body releases chemicals such as histamine, just as it does when fighting a cold. This can cause swelling in the passageways of your nose, and you’ll start sneezing and coughing.

Unlike colds, allergies aren’t contagious, though some people may inherit a tendency to get them.

Differences Between Colds and Allergies

Take stock of your symptoms and how long they last to help you decide what’s causing your trouble.

CharacteristicColdAllergy
How Long It Lasts3-14 daysDays to months — as long as you’re in contact with the allergy trigger and a short time after
When It HappensMost often in the winter, but possible at any timeAny time of the year — although the appearance of some allergy triggers is seasonal
When It StartsSymptoms take a few days to appear after infection with the virusSymptoms can begin immediately aftercontact with allergy triggers
SymptomColdAllergy
CoughOftenSometimes
AchesSometimesNever
FatigueSometimesSometimes
FeverRarelyNever
Itchy, watery eyesRarelyOften
Sore throatOftenSometimes
Runny or stuffy noseOftenOften

The most important difference is that colds usually don’t last longer than 14 days. So see your doctor if you still have symptoms after 2 weeks. These may be allergy symptoms or signs of another problem.

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